# PHP - Operators

Operators in PHP Language can be classified as a character(s) used mostly between two operands. For example

```
3 + 2 = 5
```

In the above example `3`

and `2`

are operands and `+`

and `=`

sign are operators. But there are more types of operators in PHP language which are classified as:

## Topics to be covered

We will cover the following topics in this lesson

- Logical Operators
- Arithmetic Operators
- Conditional Operators
- Comparison Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Summary

## Logical Operators

Function of Logical operators is to convert their operands to boolean (i.e. check if it's a logical 1 or 0) then it performs the respective comparison

The following table shows

S/N | First Condition | Second Condition | Operator | Result |
---|---|---|---|---|

01 | TRUE | TRUE | AND (&&) | TRUE |

02 | TRUE | FALSE | AND (&&) | FALSE |

03 | FALSE | TRUE | AND (&&) | FALSE |

04 | FALSE | FALSE | AND (&&) | FALSE |

05 | TRUE | TRUE | OR (||) | TRUE |

06 | TRUE | FALSE | OR (||) | TRUE |

07 | FALSE | TRUE | OR (||) | TRUE |

08 | FALSE | FALSE | OR (||) | FALSE |

09 | TRUE | EQUAL (==) | TRUE | |

10 | FALSE | EQUAL (==) | FALSE | |

11 | TRUE | NOT (!=) | FALSE | |

12 | FALSE | NOT (!=) | TRUE |

**Example**

Let's suppose variable Model holds `2020`

and Variable Version holds `4`

then: -

```
<?php
$model = 2020;
$version = 4;
```

The following examples show various comparisons

### Example 1: AND OPERATOR

(Model **AND** Version) is true

```
echo ($model AND $version);
```

We used **AND** operator to see if BOTH operands are true

Outputs the value `1`

### Example 2: OROPERATOR

(Model **OR** Version) is true

```
echo ($model OR $version);
```

We used **OR** operator to see if any of the operands are not null then the condition will be true

Outputs the value `1`

### Example 3: && OPERATOR

(Model **&&** Version) is true

```
echo ($model OR $version);
```

We used **&&** operator to see if both operands are not null only then the condition will be true

Outputs the value `1`

### Example 4: || OPERATOR

(Model **||** Version) is true

```
echo ($model || $version);
```

We used OR operator to see if any of the two operands are not null then the condition will be true

Outputs the value `1`

### Example 5: ! OPERATOR

**!**(Mode **&&** Version) is false

```
echo !($model && $version);
```

We used NOT operator to reverse the logical states of its operand. If the condition is true then the NOT operator becomes false

Outputs the value `0`

Try to change the value of `$version`

to `0`

then test the above code again to see what you will get.

## Arithmetic Operators

As the name suggests, Arithmetic operators are used with numeric values in order to perform arithmetical operations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, etc.

**Examples**

```
<?php
$model = 2020;
$version = 4;
```

### Example 1: Addition (+) Operator

```
echo $model + $version;
```

By using `+`

operator between Model and Version we will be adding them together: `$model + $version`

= `2024`

### Example 2: Subtraction (-) Operator

```
echo $model - $version;
```

By using `-`

operator between Model and Version we will be performing the operator of subtraction: `$model - $version`

= `2016`

### Example 3: Multiplication (*) Operator

```
echo $model * $version;
```

By using `*`

operator between Model and Version we will be multiplying both operands: `$model * $version;`

= `8080`

### Example 4: Division (/) Operator

```
echo $model / $version;
```

By using `/`

operator we will be dividing numerator by de-numerator, in our example: `$model / $version`

= `505`

### Example 5: Modulus (%) Operator

```
echo $model % $version;
```

By using `%`

(modulus) operator and remainder of after an integer has been divided we get: `$model % $version`

= `0`

### Example 6: Increment (++) Operator

```
echo ++$model;
```

By using the ++ (increment) operator we will be increasing the integer value by one: `++$model`

outputs `2021`

### Example 7: Decrement (--) Operator

```
echo --$model;
```

By using the `--`

(decrement) operator we will be decreasing the integer value by one: `--$model`

outputs `2019`

## Conditional Operators

Conditional Operator's job is the firstly evaluate an expression under the boolean rule to conclude it whether true or false and then execute one of the two statements given depending on the result after the evaluation.

For example: If condition of Model (or Version) is true ? then value is A: otherwise value is B

```
<?php
$model = 2020;
$version = 4;
if ($model || $version){
echo 'A';
}else{
echo 'B';
}
```

## Comparison Operators

Comparison operators work by taking simple values (either numeric or strings but NOT data types) as arguments and evaluate them whether they are TRUE or FALSE

**Examples**

```
<?php
$model = 2020;
$version = 4;
```

### Example 1: Equal To (==) Operator

```
if ($model == $version){
echo 'TRUE';
}else{
echo 'FALSE';
}
```

If we use `==`

operator it will check the value of two operands to see if they are equal or not, and if they are then the condition becomes true:`($model <= $version)`

is not true

### Example 2: Not Equal To (!=) Operator

```
if ($model != $version){
echo 'TRUE';
}else{
echo 'FALSE';
}
```

If we use `!=`

operator it will check the value of two operands to see if they are equal or not. If they are not equal then the condition becomes true: `($model <= $version)`

is `true`

### Example 3: Greater Than (>) Operator

```
if ($model > $version){
echo 'TRUE';
}else{
echo 'FALSE';
}
```

if we use `>`

operator it will check the value of the left operand to see if it is greater than the value of operand on the right side, if yes then the condition becomes true: `($model <= $version)`

is `true`

### Example 4: Less Than (<) Operator

```
if ($model < $version){
echo 'TRUE';
}else{
echo 'FALSE';
}
```

If we use `<`

operator it will check the value of the right operand to see if it is greater than the value of operand on the left side, if yes than the condition becomes true: `($model <= $version)`

is `false`

### Example 5: Greater Than or Equal To (>=) Operator

```
if ($model >= $version){
echo 'TRUE';
}else{
echo 'FALSE';
}
```

If we use `>=`

operator it will check the value of the left operand to see if either it is equal to the operand on right or even if it is greater, if either of it is true then the condition becomes true: `($model <= $version)`

is `true`

### Example 6: Less Than Equal To (<=) Operator

```
if ($model <= $version){
echo 'TRUE';
}else{
echo 'FALSE';
}
```

if we use `<=`

operator it will check the value of the right operand to see if either it is equal to the operand on the left or even if it is greater, if either of it is true then the condition becomes true: `($model <= $version)`

is `false`

## Assignment Operators

Assignment operators are used with all sorts of numeric values to write a value to a variable. For this we will use `=`

sign. The operand on the left of `=`

sign gets assigned with the value of the expression written on the right.

**Examples**

```
<?php
$x = 1;
$y = 2;
$z = 3;
```

### Example 1: Expression Assignment

```
$x = $y + $z;
echo $x;
```

If we type X = Y + Z then the value of Y + Z will be assigned in to X

### Example 2: Increment Assignment

```
$y += $y;
echo $y;
```

If we type X += Y then it will mean that X = X + Y

### Example 3: Decrement Assignment

```
$y -= $y;
echo $y;
```

If we type X -= Y then it will mean X = X - Y

### Example 4: Multiplication Assignment

```
$y *= $y;
echo $y;
```

If we type X *= Y then it will mean X = X * Y

### Example 5: Division Assignment

```
$y /= $y;
echo $y;
```

If we type X /= Y then it will mean X = X / Y

### Example 6: Modulus Assignment

```
$y %= $y;
echo $y;
```

If we type X %= Y then it will mean X = X % A

## Summary

Operators in PHP allow us to do various tasks such as write arithemetic expressions like `1 + 1`

, assign values to variables like `$value_added_tax = $cost * $vat_rate`

, compare values like `$x == $y`

etc. Operators in PHP can be categorized as arithmetic, comparison, logical, and assignment.

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